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    Dwarf galaxy formation induced by galaxy interactions

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    Dwarf galaxy formation induced by galaxy interactions Tadashi Okazaki,&Yoshiaki Taniguchi Astronomical Institute,Graduate School of Science,Tohoku University,Aramaki,Aoba,Sendai 980-8578,Japan ABSTRACT Growing evidence has been accumulated for that some gas-rich dwarf galaxies are formed from material liberated by galaxy collisions and/or mergers.Also,gas-poor dwarf elliptical galaxies are often found in the central regions of clusters of galaxies.These observations suggest strongly that the formation of most dwarf galaxies is linked to galaxy interactions.Therefore,now seems like the right time to investigate the formation e?ciency of such tidal dwarf galaxies.Adopting the galaxy interaction scenario proposed by Silk &Norman,we ?nd that if only a few dwarf galaxies are formed in each galaxy collision,we are able to explain the observed morphology-density relations for both dwarf and giant galaxies in the ?eld,groups of galaxies,and clusters of galaxies.It seems worthwhile noting that the tidal dwarf formation may be coupled with the transformation from gas-rich disk galaxies to early-type galaxies such as S0and elliptical galaxies.Subject headings:galaxies:formation -galaxies:interactions -galaxies:structure To appear in ApJ,543(the November 1,2000issue)1.Introduction Although dwarf galaxies are the most numerous systems in the nearby Universe (Ferguson &Binggeli 1994;Binggeli,Sandage &Tammann 1988;Mateo 1998),it seems unclear how they are related in origin to typical giant galaxies 1.Dwarf galaxies could be formed through the same physical process formation of

    giant galaxies;i.e.,gravitational collapse of protogalactic gas clouds (Dekel &Silk 1986;White &Frenk 1991;Frenk et al.1996;Kau?mann,Nusser &Steinmetz 1997).However,it is known that dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs)apparently belong to the di?erent class from giant ellipticals (Es)in the fundamental plane (Kormendy 1985),suggesting that the formation and/or evolution processes of dwarfs may not be the same as those of giants.

    It has been argued from an observational view point that dwarf galaxies may be formed by galaxy collisions because there appears morphological evidence for dwarf galaxies in tidal tails of interacting galaxies (Zwicky 1956;Schweizer 1978);i.e.,gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies can be made out of stellar and gaseous material pulled out by tidal forces from the disks of colliding parent galaxies into the intergalactic space.This possibility has been recently reinforced by a number of pieces of observational evidence (Schweizer 1982;Bergvall &Johansson 1985;Mirabel,Lutz &Maza 1991;Mirabel,Dottori &Lutz 1992;Duc &Mirabel 1994,1998;Yoshida,Taniguchi &Murayama 1994;Braine et al.2000;Weilbacher et al.

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